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European Journal of Ultrasound 1-2021
Nicola Fratelli et al.
Post hoc analysis of data derived from the TRUFFLE study, a prospective, multicenter, randomized management trial of severe early onset FGR. Repeat Doppler and CTG-STV measurements between the last recording within 48 hours before the first dose of betamethasone (baseline value) and for 10 days after were evaluated. Multilevel analysis was performed to analyze the longitudinal course of the umbilico-cerebral ratio (UC ratio), the ductus venosus pulsatility index (DVPIV) and CTG-STV.
The assessment of pupil diameter as well as its response to light (pupillary light reflex) and to cutaneous painful stimuli (ciliospinal reflex) is a clinical standard in the evaluation of basic functions of the brainstem, cranial nerves, and the autonomic nervous system. In patients with traumatic brain injury or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, testing for the presence versus absence of pupillary reflexes is of high prognostic value already in the first hours after injury. Classically, pupillary responses to stimuli are assessed visually by the responsible physician or nurse.